When an artificial reservoir such as an aquarium, tank, or pond is equipped, the first question that arises will be about what kind of fish can be bred in this type of reservoir. Since the success of the entire event will largely depend on the right choice.
First of all, the territory in which the farm is located will influence the choice of specific fish.
After all, those species of fish that feel good and develop comfortably in the southern regions are unlikely to be able to take root in the northern regions. Also, and vice versa. One should not lose sight of the quality of the water in the source. All this cannot but affect the vital activity of fish. Be that as it may, the main indicator of the correct breeding of fish in a pond is knowledge of all biological features and characteristic properties.
Easiest Freshwater Fish To Breed In Tank And Ponds
carp freshwater fish
It is no exaggeration to say that carp is the most popular fish grown in many water bodies of our country. Its value lies in its biological characteristics and beneficial properties. Carp is a thermophilic fish. It is found in freshwater, and among other inhabitants of freshwater bodies, it is distinguished by increased endurance, omnivorousness, and speed of movement. It has excellent taste. In addition, it cannot be called whimsical to the conditions in which it is kept. It can adapt to changes in various factors in the reservoir, for example, to a new food supply. The most optimal temperature is 19-30 degrees for the development and reproduction of cyprinids.
Sexually mature carp is considered to be 2-5 years old, a specific age is determined by the temperature in the reservoir. In colder regions of Russia (in the north and in the central part), ripening occurs by 5 years. In the southern parts – by three years, while males develop earlier than females. At a constantly high temperature, maturation can take place in one year.
Scaly carp, mirror carp, naked carp
Such fish are quite fertile, and this is affected by their conditions of detention. Being in their natural habitat, carp will spawn at a temperature of 17-20 degrees. Places for this are selected with the presence of aquatic and meadow vegetation, which is used as a substrate for sticky larvae.
Depending on the temperature of the water, embryonic development is determined, it can be up to 6 days. After about three days, active feeding of the fry begins. Natural food plays an important role here: small plankton and then larger creatures will be used. When they grow up a little, they begin to feed on organisms such as larvae, mollusks, oligochaetes. The fish will also be great for eating the feed with which it is additionally fed.
Carps are quite large in size. In length, they can grow more than a meter, and in weight – up to 25 kg. They quickly increase in volume and gain weight. Under favorable living conditions, in the first year they grow to about a kilogram, and in the second – up to two. The fish farms located in the central regions have their own standards: up to 30 g of fingerlings, up to 500 g in two years, 1-1.2 kg in three years.
Carp have different scaly cover, so they can be of different varieties: leathery and naked, mirror (linear and scattered), scaly.
For fish farming, it is better to choose smaller reservoirs that will warm up well. They should have medium volumes of soft vegetation and should ideally not be flowing.
Golden crucian carp
The body of such a fish will be high, and have a rounded shape, there is no mustache on its mouth. At the same time, her head is small, and she has a reddish color on the sides. Prefers still water with a lot of silt. Crucians are considered hardy fish and tolerate adverse conditions well. They can experience an insufficient amount of oxygen, and high acidity of water (up to 4.5 pH). If the reservoir is not flowing and there are many thickets in it, then the only fish that is found here may be crucian carp.
At the age of 2 to 4 years, crucian carp become sexually mature. Their fertility can reach about 200 thousand eggs. They have a wave-like spawning, and it has an interval of up to 10-15 days. They feed on particles of aquatic plants and benthic organisms.
A crucian carp can grow up to three kg, but their usual weight is about 0.5 kg. With well-organized feeding in a reservoir, after the first year of life, its weight can reach 300 g. Regardless of what the reservoir will be, there should be no problems with breeding crucian carp.
To get hybrids, crucian carp can be crossed with carp, as well as with other types of fish. The resulting hybrids will have a higher gastronomic value and will also grow faster.
Unlike golden carp, this variety has a somewhat angular body shape and a silvery color on the sides. Its scales are large, and there are also a large number of gill rakers.
The silver carp, like the gold one, is able to tolerate adverse conditions well. But he can gain weight faster, and at the age of two can weigh up to 300 g.
It uses phytoplankton and zooplankton as food, while older individuals consume benthos.
This type of fish has an unusual property. In the Far East and in the central part of Russia, the number of females and males is approximately the same. But in other regions there are practically only females. And so that their reproduction does not stop, in this case, males of other species of fish (carp, goldfish and others) take part. With this mating, golden carp produces only females. The resulting offspring are often used to breed fish in water bodies where the state of the hydrochemical regime is poor.
Such fish have a high rate of development and can weigh up to 50 kg, while their length can be more than one meter. Cupid belongs to the carp species of fish and has large scales. His jaws are devoid of teeth, and he bites food with the help of teeth on the lower jaw bone, which look like saws.
Water bodies of the Far East and the regions of China closest to it are considered to be natural habitats. In central Russia, carp appeared in the 50s, and now it is very popular in the fish farms of our country. And he gained his popularity due to the peculiarities of nutrition. In the first year of life, the body of the fish is up to 30 mm in length, and it already feeds on the higher vegetation of water bodies. As a result, not only aquatic vegetation, but also terrestrial vegetation, which enters the reservoir during flood periods, becomes the main food for fish. Most of all, cupid eats urut, elodea, hornwort, and he gives preference to young plants. But when they are absent, then tough reed and cattail species can also be used in the diet of adults.
Of the plants that grow on the ground, grass carp prefers clover, cereals and alfalfa. Depending on the temperature in the reservoir, its development and puberty will be determined. At a water temperature of 25-30 degrees, cupid can consume food more than its own body weight. If the temperature rises, then the feeding activity will not decrease. With a decrease in temperature, they begin to consume less food. When it reaches 10 degrees, cupid can completely refuse food.
In the southern regions of the country, the temperature in reservoirs always has a high mark, so cupid will grow all year round. Since grass carp can consume a large amount of vegetation, it is rightfully considered a meliorator in water, where there is a large amount of thickets.
Cupid has great growth potential. If it is bred in the tropics, where optimal conditions for its life are maintained all year round, then it can reach 10 kg in a year and a half. In most regions of Russia, there are no such ideal conditions for its existence, but even so, at the age of two, its weight can be more than 1 kg.
The moment of onset of maturity depends on the temperature in the period before the onset of its spawning. When the temperature is less than 15 degrees, the ripening can be extended up to two years. In Krasnodar reservoirs, fish matures by 4 or 5 years.
In addition to the influence of temperatures on puberty, feeding conditions will also be of great importance. If there is not enough food, then there will be a delay in maturation, and at the same time, their fertility decreases.
Cupid, which weighs up to 8 kg, is capable of throwing 1 million eggs. He does this in the water, as well as other fish that feed on vegetation. Fish spawning occurs in large river beds when the water temperature is 24-28 degrees. The timing of the appearance of the larvae depends on the temperature of the water. If the water temperature is about 29 degrees, then a day will be enough. At 18 degrees, it will take up to 3 days. Therefore, if the temperature in artificial reservoirs is regulated, then the offspring can be hatched at the required time.
The black carp lives in the Far East and China. It is similar to its fellow grass carp, but its color is very dark, closer to black, and has large scales. Under favorable conditions, its weight can reach 55 kg. For the rapid growth of cupid, it needs favorable conditions and good nutrition. He eats shellfish. It has strong pharyngeal teeth and a large chewing surface. The larvae feed on zooplankton. Slightly older fish already consume benthos, while adults prefer shellfish.
They go to spawn fish in the rivers. Sexual maturity in females occurs by 8 years, and in males about a year earlier. Females can produce about 400 thousand eggs. This fish is very valuable as it can be bred with other types of fish. They also do preventive work, as they eat shellfish, which can carry parasites.
Variegated and white silver carp
It is quite large in size, and the weight can be more than 50 kg. It has a large head with low eyes.
Such varieties of silver carp have not only external, but also biological differences. The silver carp has a larger head and taller body. Its back has a grayish-brown color, and the sides with a silvery tint and brown blotches. The silver carp, on the other hand, has a green-gray back and silvery sides. At the same time, he has no spots. The gill rakers in the silver carp are often located and oblong, while in the white they are woven into a net.
The nutrition of each of the varieties depends on the device of their filtration apparatus, as well as on the characteristics of the food consumed. You can notice the nutritional characteristics of the fish when its weight reaches about 5 grams. Here you can already understand what the structure of the filtration apparatus is.
At any age of silver carp, the distance between its stamens will be the same.
As a rule, they feed on phytoplankton and detritus. It is detritus in their food that the most amount enters. When the fish grows to 35 mm or more, then it goes more to phytoplankton. Also, it can feed on algae, green or blue-green. Including, she consumes those algae that cause blooming of the reservoir. But he will not eat artificial feed.
Eat artificial food, variegated species of fish can. But it is better to choose zooplankton for food. Carps love the same thing. This point should be taken into account if these species of fish will be bred together.
In both varieties of silver carp, sexual maturity occurs depending on climate conditions, the age of individuals can be different. The silver carp, which lives in the south of the country, matures at three years, and for the variegated, at four years. The same individuals that live in the central part of the country reach maturity at seven and eight years, respectively. Females weighing about 9 kg can lay up to 1 million eggs.
Under good conditions and sufficient food supply, silver carps can gain up to two kg in weight during the summer season.
The fish is appreciated for its delicious and tender meat. In fish farms, a hybrid of these types of silver carp is bred. It has good low temperature living characteristics. They can feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton, and this fact is very important, since fish in water bodies can develop at different times.
This type of fish lives in America. It came to Russia in the 70s, and three varieties of it were imported: black, small-mouthed and large-mouthed Buffalo. Its appearance is similar to the usual carp, they are just as large and have a fast growth rate. Some large-mouthed fish can reach 45 kg, and small-mouthed, about 17 kg.
Different types of this fish can be of different sizes. In addition, they differ in the structure of the branchial and oral apparatus. Therefore, fish will have differences in nutrition.
The filtering apparatus is most developed in the large-mouthed Buffalo species. The rest of the types have a lower mouth, they do not have many branchial stamens, and they are shorter and thicker.
Each species of underyearlings, weighing 15 g, eat zooplankton. When their body weight increases, the bigmouth Buffalo remains true to its choice of zooplankton, but the smallmouth moves to benthos, and feeds on it more.
When there is not enough benthos in the reservoir, smallmouth and black Buffalo can eat zooplankton. All of these fish species can also be fed with compound feed. Fish of different species will also differ in their behavior. The black option selects the bottom layers, while the other two prefer moving the water column.
Fish move in schools and prefer calmer and quieter water. Will feel good in ponds. Their growth will depend largely on temperature conditions. Buffalo are thermophilic fish.
They will be similar to carps in the peculiarities of their reproduction. Sexual maturity in males occurs at two years, and in females later, at three. Smallmouth and black Buffalo females begin to mature. And in large-mouthed individuals, maturation occurs a year or two later. Fish breed in the spring, and in order for them to start spawning, they need a temperature of 17-19 degrees. Sticky little eggs are deposited on grass or existing vegetation. The appearance of larvae occurs after five days, if the temperature regime is kept within 18-20 degrees.
If there is a sufficient amount of natural food in reservoirs, fingerlings can weigh up to half a kilogram. And at the age of two, their weight reaches two kg. Buffaloes are more valuable than carp.
This fish is quite large, and the weight can reach 30 kg. The fish came to Russia from America. It is thermophilic, and an acceptable temperature for its reproduction is 25-30 degrees. But at the same time, it is able to survive for several months in those reservoirs that are covered with a layer of ice. The amount of oxygen in the water is of great importance for catfish.
For feeding, catfish can use almost any food. Fry and larvae in natural conditions feed on zooplankton, and more mature individuals choose mollusks, caddis flies and so on for food. Individuals that are large in size (over 300mm) can eat small fish.
Sexual maturity occurs by 5-8 years. Caviar throwing occurs in the summer, when the temperature reaches 21-22 degrees. They are not very prolific, and spawn up to 10 thousand eggs per kg of their mass. At a temperature of 30 degrees, the larvae will appear on the 4th day, and at a lower temperature (20 degrees), on the 9th day. After the yolk sac dissolves, you can start breeding fish, feeding it with artificial food.
In our country, it is better to breed this kind of fish in cages, which are placed in such reservoirs where you can regulate the temperature, since the catfish is very fond of warmth. If breeding takes place in the southern regions, then they can be bred in a pond, on a par with other fish.
The catfish grows up quite quickly. It is distinguished by delicious meat. If fish are raised in cages, feed should be monitored carefully. It is necessary that the feed has a sufficient amount of vitamins and proteins. Mixed fodder mixtures, minced fish and waste from the battle are used as feed.
This fish is considered predatory, and it lives in the fresh waters of North America. In Russia, they began to breed it in the reservoirs of the Krasnodar Territory.
Fish nutrition is influenced by their age and size of individuals. Feeding of fry begins at the age of one week, they mainly consume green algae. As they grow up, fish begin to feed on insects, frogs, tadpoles, and small fish. When there is not enough food for them, they can begin to eat their own kind. Therefore, special attention should be paid to their nutrition.
When puberty comes, it will depend on the temperature regime. In the reservoirs of the Krasnodar Territory, maturation begins by the age of three, since under warm conditions, the appearance of children begins already by the first year of life. One kg of weight accounts for up to 45 thousand eggs. They spawn at 19-25 degrees. Males make a nest in the ground, where the female will lay eggs that are yellow. The ripening of the eggs will be influenced by the temperature of the water. For about one month, the male is engaged in the protection of the offspring, and creates water flows so that the water is renewed and does not stagnate. During the spawning period, spawning can occur up to 5 times. One female can give life to up to 25 thousand fry.
The development of this fish is taking place at a rapid pace. At a temperature of 26-30 degrees, when all conditions and nutrition are favorable, in the first year of life, individuals reach 0.5 kg. And already in the second year – up to two kg. The maximum weight of the fish is approximately 12 kg.
Her meat is lean, with excellent taste, there is a similarity with trout meat. It is often caught when doing sport fishing.
STURGEON FISH For breeding in tanks and ponds
Recently, more and more attention has been paid to sturgeon fish. They can be planted in ponds, pools, tanks. And everything is connected with the fact that sturgeon breeding is profitable and always pays for itself. Both sturgeon fish and their hybrids are involved in breeding. For example, sterlet and beluga can be crossed.
Such a hybrid appeared in the 20th century. It combines all the best qualities of the beluga and sterlet (predator instincts, early puberty, rapid growth).
Due to the presence of such traits, the fish is able to survive in different habitats. Both fresh and salt water will suit her. For her breeding, anglers choose pools, cages and ponds. Over the summer, the bester gains up to 100 g of mass, and the next year it already becomes more than 800 g.
In terms of its features, both external and biological, it is similar to a sterlet. But such a sturgeon is larger in size. Its weight can reach 25 kg. It lives in fresh water and feeds on insects (their larvae), worms, crustaceans and molluscs. In the natural environment, it will develop slowly. Only by the age of 20 can he gain 4 kg when his body length is 1000 mm. It has great growth potential if it lives in a supportive environment.
Sexual maturity occurs by the age of 11-12. It spawns in summer, when the water temperature is 15-18 degrees. It will spawn where there is a fast current and rocky ground. Depending on the size of the female, her fertility will be determined. They are capable of throwing from 15 thousand to 100 thousand eggs. Even if the temperature rises, the fish will still be comfortable. 15-25 degrees are considered ideal for them.
In our country, such a fish is considered quite new. It appeared in the 70s, and was imported from America. It is the only sturgeon species that eats zooplankton, detritus and phytoplankton. According to the choice of its food, it looks like the silver carp. This is due to the peculiarities of the branchial apparatus, which filters food passively and uses various branchial stamens. Also, he can eat small fish and feed on compound feed.
It belongs to the freshwater fish species. It is quite large in size and has a fast growth rate. The weight can reach 80 kg, and the length is more than 2 m. The body becomes narrower towards the tail and has an elongated shape.
The color has: light sides and belly, and dark, closer to gray, back. It does not have the scales that are typical for sturgeon. It quickly takes root in different bodies of water. In the south of the country, males ripen by the age of 6, and females are closer to 10. They spawn in spring, at a temperature of 15-20 degrees. Spawning occurs in places where pebble and sandy ground. Fertility depends on the size of the female. Weighing 10 kg, it will lay up to 100 thousand eggs.
You can breed fish, both separately and together with Buffalo. If the paddlefish gets enough food, it will grow quite quickly. The ideal temperature for them is 21-25 degrees. Underyearlings weigh from 150 g to 850 g. And the weight of two-year-olds reaches 4 kg. Adult fish that eat well can gain up to 7 kg in one season.
Such a fish is valued for its adaptability to wintering in reservoirs that are under a layer of ice for a long time. Therefore paddlefish are popular in all regions of the country. The fish has very high taste, its meat is similar to beluga meat, and sturgeon caviar. That is why paddlefish are so prized in fish farming.
It is widespread in fish farming, the most widespread is the European eel.
It has a long body, rounded at the front and flattened at the back. The fins on the chest are very small and rounded. And the caudal, dorsal and anal fins are united into a single fin.
This fish is considered anadromous, and it will breed in the ocean. Eel will spawn in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as in the Sargasso Sea. For the female to start spawning, the temperature must be 16-17 degrees. Eel eggs are small and will develop in the water column. The eggs are transparent and flattened on the sides. Thanks to the warm current of the Gulf Stream, fry can move to European waters. And from there they go to the rivers.
In reservoirs and rivers, the fish will live until the time of their maturation, after which they again head towards the Sargasso Sea.
Narrow and longitudinal ponds are ideal for growing eels. This fish found its distribution in Japan, Italy and France.
The eel belongs to predators, and can feed on small fish, frogs, and crustaceans. Therefore, when breeding it, the feed must contain a large amount of animal protein. The optimum temperature is considered to be 20-27 degrees. Also, fish are very demanding on oxygen content.
The development of females is somewhat faster than that of males. Eel meat has high taste and high fat content.
In the natural environment, tilapia lives in the waters of the Middle East and Africa. Since ancient times, this fish has been a serious food source. And today it has not lost its popularity. And everything is connected with its characteristics, it is omnivorous, high growth rates, tolerance to many diseases, good taste.
Tilapia comes in many different types. All of them can be divided into 4 main groups. The most common genus is oreochromis. All fish of this genus have their own biological peculiarity: eggs hatch directly in the mouth.
These fish can breed in pools, cages, ponds, and even aquariums. Under natural conditions, reproduction is seasonal and can be repeated many times a year. Cases were reported about 15 times. Sexual maturity occurs very early, and this is mainly due to the temperature of the water. Already in the region of six months, and sometimes even earlier, the tilapia undergoes puberty, after which it is able to spawn every month and a half.
But at the same time, their fertility properties are small. The female, which weighs about 1 kg, can produce up to 2.5 thousand eggs. But. Considering the fact that eggs hatch in the mouth, more than 90% of the fry survive.
Accommodation of tilapias is possible in slightly salty water, as well as in fresh water bodies. If there is not enough oxygen, this is not too scary for these types of fish. When the water temperature reaches 25 degrees, then 1 mg of oxygen per 1 liter of liquid will be enough. Fish will begin to die at rates of 0.4 mg per 1 liter.
When diluting them, one should take into account the fact that they can breathe using the surface layers of water. And also, conditions are not terrible for them if the reservoir contains a large amount of organic matter.
Tilapia are thermophilic fish species. But at the same time, they are able to survive at colder temperatures. But the temperature drop to 1 degrees will be dangerous for them, then the fish may die. Ideal for their development is considered a temperature in the range of 25-35 degrees. When living in salt water, they will better cope with extreme temperatures.
Such fish are considered universal in their nutrition. But some species prefer a certain type of food: zooplankton, phytoplankton, aquatic vegetation.
Fish farming can be done both for sale and for decorative purposes.
Differs in very tasty meat and easy cultivation. It lives in cold water and is very popular among fish farmers. Trout has a silvery hue, and fins and the entire body are covered with black specks.
When fish go to spawn, males will have a darker color than females. On the side, the fish has a bright red stripe that has shades of a rainbow, which is where its name comes from. Females are distinguished by a rounded head shape, and larger in size, and their side stripe has a lighter shade. In males, the lower part of the jaw curves upward.
An excellent temperature for trout is considered to be 16-18 degrees, when oxygen indicators are kept at 10-11 mg per 1 liter. At lower oxygen levels, the fish will feel worse, but the critical level for it is 3 mg per liter, this causes its death.
Trout feeds on bugs, frogs, dragonflies, mosquito larvae. Upon reaching the age of two, it can also eat small fish. If it is bred in artificial reservoirs, it is important to add sufficient protein to the feed. Trout grows pretty quickly. Underyearlings can weigh more than 20 g. In two years, their weight reaches 200 g, after another year they grow to almost 1 kg. When living in sea water or in special cages, fish can gain 3 kg in just 2 years.
Sexual maturity occurs closer to three years. The size and age of the fish will determine its fertility. At the age of four, a female can produce 2,500 eggs, and at 7 years, already 4,500 eggs. The eggs are quite large and orange in color. How bright the color will be depends on the food supply. In warm regions of the country, fish go to spawn in December – March. In colder areas, spawning occurs later – March-May. For throwing eggs, a temperature of 8-9 degrees is considered suitable. Larvae develop within 40 days.
But in order for the trout to develop properly, it needs to be provided with a sufficient amount of oxygen. In addition, it is important to remember about the quality of the water.
Such fish can very quickly adapt to a wide variety of habitats. It is distinguished by excellent taste. Can live in lakes, near river channels. Peled feeds on phyto and zooplankton, benthos and detritus.
The fish grows quickly, underyearlings can weigh about 100 g. In two years its weight reaches 400 g, and in three it can be 1 kg. Peled puberty occurs at 3-4 years old. The fish go to spawn in November or December, when the temperature is between 3 and 5 degrees. Fertility depends on the size of the fish and the conditions in which it is kept. She can lay up to 85 thousand eggs. Caviar is orange or yellowish in color.
When breeding peled, it is better to adhere to a temperature regime of 15-20 degrees. Peled is not very demanding on the oxygen content in the water, and will do well when the level is 6-8 mg per liter.
The Whitefish got its name due to its natural habitat – Lake Peipsi. Currently, he lives in the reservoirs of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk, as well as their regions. It can grow up to 500 mm, and have a body weight of up to 3500 g. Depending on the amount of feed, its growth rate will be noted. Also, development is influenced by oxygen indicators and temperature conditions. The optimal temperature is 15-20 degrees, and the oxygen level is 8 mg per liter.
Whitefish feeds on zooplankton and benthos, and adults can also eat small fish. When bred in ponds, underyearlings can weigh up to 90g. Upon reaching two years, the weight increases to 400 g. Sexual maturity occurs closer to three years. The meat of such a fish is very tasty and especially tender.
The natural habitat for Chir is the waters of the Arctic. In these regions, the duration of the summer is very short. Individuals have a fast pace of development, in this they are similar to carp. At 2 years old, fish living in the waters of St. Petersburg can weigh 600 g. Adults are capable of growing up to 15 kg.
Sexual maturity occurs by the age of 6-7 years. Fertility can be different, and reach 130 thousand eggs. Chir spawns in November or December, when the first ice sets in.
Among fish farmers, a hybrid of Chira and Pelyadi is very popular. Such a fish was named Pelchir. The hybrid has significant advantages, taking the best qualities from its parents. It can feed on zooplankton and zoobenthos. It has a significant growth rate, which is twice the development of peled. The hybrid tolerates diseases more easily, and a larger number of underyearlings survive to adults, in comparison with Chir.
Such fish is grown in cold and stagnant water. It has tasty meat, high protein content, and low fat content. When breeding for pike, special conditions are not required, it is important that it receives a sufficient amount of food. She can eat leeches, dragonflies, frogs, tadpoles, and even other fish. This fish is a predatory species. Depending on the specific month and time, the activity of her nutrition will depend. She will consume food more intensively in May and April, in July, and in October, November. In winter, females have a stronger appetite than males.
You can breed pike together with other species of fish, as well as separately. You can add pike fry to a carp that is one year old, the length of which is only 2-3 cm.In total, no more than 300 pieces can be planted. When fodder fish are launched into the reservoir, the number of pike planted can be increased several times. Pike growth rates are high. Underyearlings that live in the waters of the Moscow region can weigh up to 0.5 kg. At the age of two, their weight is more than 1 kg.
The fish owes its name to its property to change color after it is taken out of the water. When the tench leaves the water, black spots appear on the skin. And this is due to the fact that in their natural habitat, the fish is covered with a large layer of colorless mucus. When air enters, it will freeze and acquire a dark color. In some places, it peels off, after which yellowish spots remain.
Lin prefers a quiet harbor with plenty of grass and not much silt. During the daytime, the fish likes to hide in the vegetation. Here, the tench feeds on the food that falls to the bottom of the reservoirs.
Such a fish can live with carp, or other species. But carp loves to be in open water more, where they are looking for natural food for themselves, which may be in a layer of silt. If fish farmers breed these fish together, then when feeding them, attention should be paid to the natural resources that the reservoir is rich in. There is practically no competition between such individuals.
The tench feeds mainly on mollusks, crustaceans, various representatives of the fauna that lives at the bottom of the reservoir.
Development is taking place at a slow pace. Underyearlings will weigh only about 15 g. At the age of two, their weight increases to 200 g, and at 3 years old, to 350 g.
Catfish is a freshwater fish that loves warmth. Its most common variant is considered to be the European type. It feeds on frogs, many underwater organisms, and other fish. Sometimes it can eat birds that swim on the water. Ripening in them occurs in the region of 4 years. When throwing eggs, fertility will be up to 20 thousand eggs.
Compared to other predators, the catfish has its own merits. He can live in reservoirs of small sizes, even a small quarry or pond is enough. Its distinctive feature is hibernation. Therefore, during this period there is no need to control other fish and take care of nutrition for him.
The fish is considered to be very hardy, so it can take root in different conditions. From the age of two, catfish are bred together with carps of the same age. Catfish, at the age of one year, can be planted with a one-year-old carp, at 130 pieces / ha, approximately. If the neighborhood is not provided, then the density can be higher, up to 1000 pieces / ha. It has high growth rates, already at the age of two it reaches 1500.
The fish belongs to predators, takes root in clean and large reservoirs. But you can often find him living in ponds where carps live. If there are weed fish in the reservoir, pike perch can be used as an additional element. He reaches puberty by the age of two.
Pike perch prefers warmth, a comfortable temperature for him is 19-20 degrees. If there is not enough oxygen in the water, then the fish may simply die.
Higher growth rates if the pike perch receives the required amount of food. Gain weight in one season, it can up to 600 g. It feeds, as a rule, on zooplankton. At a more mature age, he switches to the use of small fish (bleak, swine, gudgeon and others). The pike perch has small pharyngeal and mouth sizes, so it simply cannot swallow a large fish.
The temperature regime will determine in which layers of the reservoir the pike perch will swim. He is an active hunter and does not like thickets. Often swims in places where there are many snags and deep depressions. The fish will not be in one place for a long time.
When pike perch is planted in a reservoir where carp already live, the rate is 250 fry per hectare.
When pike perch and carp live together, the fish will grow rapidly, which is a good indicator of productivity. Pike perch goes to spawn at a temperature of 9-10 degrees, in those places where there is no current, he chooses a depth of up to 3.5 meters for this.
Throwing eggs occurs on reeds, reeds and other plants that are suitable for them in size. Females spawn eggs, most often at night. After that, males remain near the nest with eggs, and females swim away to another place.
Easiest Ornamental fish species to breed in tank
As an ornamental species, goldfish are most popular. In its natural environment, she lives in the eastern part of Asia. This fish appeared in the 10th century in China, from here the first mentions of it begin. Further, she was brought to Portugal, and then to England, and only after that came to Russia.
Breeders did a good job with the first goldfish, so nowadays, there are many varieties of it. Experts have 16 breeds, each of which has its own characteristic features. These are: the classic goldfish (hibun); ranch – they lack a dorsal fin, and the pearl has a different color of scales; vakin – her tail is short, with a pronounced bifurcation; comet – has a longer body and an elongated tail; shubunkin – his body is short, and his color is bright; telescope – has bulging eyes that are of different sizes and shapes.
As a rule, females of such fish have a lighter color in comparison with males. In males, there are files on their fins, and their head is covered with a pearl rash. Their fertility is about 3-10 thousand eggs. Their lifespan can be up to 35 years. But, this factor largely depends on the conditions in which she lives. Fish prefer running water more. As food, they can eat both plant foods and animals. Puberty occurs at about two years of age.
Colored carp or koi carp
Such a fish appeared for the first time in countries such as Vietnam, China and Japan. Its dimensions can be up to 1200 mm. Such carp came to Russia back in the 1960s. It is presented in several varieties. Some options will only have one color (cyan, white, blue, and others). And the rest have several color combinations.
Sexual maturation occurs by 3-4 years. Fertility can be 300 thousand eggs, and can reach 1 million. In captivity, fish can live for about 30 years. Uses any food as food.
Specific conditions for its breeding are not needed. Can survive in a variety of waters. But, unlike ordinary carp, its colored brother prefers warm water more. But, despite this, wintering in the pond will not be a problem for him.